What Do Cows Eat?

by Tristen Spahr

We aren’t the only ones eating a carefully balanced diet – dairy cows do too!

Dairy farmers work closely with nutritionists to plan and ration a cow’s diet. So what DO cows eat?

Well, it varies from farm to farm and by the cow’s age.

Baby calves are fed colostrum (a mother’s first milk) within the first 24 hours of when they’re born to ensure they get all of the antibodies, nutrients and minerals needed for a healthy start. For the next 2-3 months, they will drink milk or milk replacer (like baby formula).

jersey calf drinking milk from a bottleAfter 2-3 months, calves are weaned off milk and fed a diet of grain, hay and water. Calves are picky just like most children, so most calf grain is coated in molasses to make it sweeter and taste better.

calves eating grain

Heifers (think teenagers) and cows are fed grain mixed with hay, corn silage (entire corn plant chopped and fermented) and other feeds to create what farmers and nutritionists call a total mixed ration, or TMR.

dairy cows eating
The TMR is made in a big mixer like the one below. The TMR is important because it ensures cows get proper nutrition. Cows, just like kids, have a tendency to sort through their meal and pick out their favorite parts (like grain), so mixing and grinding the feed together ensures they get a properly balanced meal with every bite.

feed mixer

And here’s a fun fact: Cows spend about 6.5 hours a day eating! They consume about 100 pounds of feed and drink about a bathtub full of water (25-50 gallons) of water day.

Dairy cows are great recyclers! They can turn inedible by-products from human food and fiber industries like citrus pulp, cottonseed and brewers grain into wholesome nutritious milk!

Tristen Spahr

Tristen is the Communications Specialist for the American Dairy Association Mideast. A recent graduate of The Ohio State University, Tristen was raised on a dairy farm in Northwest Ohio. She is a social media enthusiast and enjoys cooking and going to concerts in her free time.

1 Comment

  1. Jase Elma Mathew | | Reply

    good service

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