What Do Cows Eat?

We aren’t the only ones eating a carefully balanced diet — dairy cows do too!

Dairy farmers work closely with nutritionists to plan and ration a cow’s diet. So, what DO cows eat? Well, it varies from farm to farm and by the cow’s age. Keep reading or watch this fun video to learn about what dairy cows eat!

Baby calves are fed colostrum (a mother’s first milk) within the first 24 hours of when they’re born to ensure they get all of the antibodies, nutrients and minerals needed for a healthy start. For the next 2-3 months, they will drink milk or milk replacer (like baby formula).

jersey calf drinking milk from a bottle

After 2-3 months, calves are weaned off milk and fed a diet of grain, hay and water. Calves are picky just like most children, so most calf grain is coated in molasses to make it sweeter and taste better.

calves eating grain

Heifers and cows are fed grain mixed with hay, corn silage (entire corn plant chopped and fermented) and other feeds to create what farmers and nutritionists call a total mixed ration, or TMR.

dairy cows eating

The TMR is made in a big mixer like the one below. The TMR is important because it ensures cows get proper nutrition. Cows, just like kids, have a tendency to sort through their meal and pick out their favorite parts (like grain), so mixing and grinding the feed together ensures they get a properly balanced meal with every bite.

feed mixer

And here’s a fun fact: Cows spend 3-5 hours a day eating! They consume about 100 pounds of feed and drink about a bathtub full of water (25-50 gallons) of water day.

Dairy cows are great recyclers! They can turn inedible by-products from human food and fiber industries like citrus pulp, cottonseed and brewers grain into wholesome nutritious milk!


  1. Thank you for such an informative article and story about these cows and how they’re fed from the very beginning. I was amazed. dairy farmers are#1 A lot of hard work and attention that goes into raising such beautiful and healthy dairy cattle. Thank you!

  2. Thank u I needed this info for an Essay For ELA!!! I LOVE COWS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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